degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease, osteoarthrosis

The formation of hard nobs at the middle finger joints (known as Bouchard’s nodes) and at the farther away finger joint (known as Heberden’s node) are a common feature of osteoarthritis in the hands.

Classification and external resources

Rheumatology, orthopedics

M15-M19, M47





med/1682 orthoped/427 pmr/93 radio/492

Patient UK


[edit on Wikidata]

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone.[1] The most common symptoms are joint pain and stiffness. Initially, symptoms may occur only following exercise, but over time may become constant. Other symptoms may include joint swelling, decreased range of motion, and when the back is affected weakness or numbness of the arms and legs. The most commonly involved joints are those near the ends of the fingers, at the base of the thumb, neck, lower back, knee, and hips. Joints on one side of the body are often more affected than those on the other. Usually the symptoms come on over years. It can affect work and normal daily activities. Unlike other types of arthritis, only the joints are typically affected.[2]
Causes include previous joint injury, abnormal joint or limb development, and inherited factors. Risk is greater in those who are overweight, have one leg of a different length, and have jobs that result in high levels of joint stress.[2][3] Osteoarthritis is believed to be caused by mechanical stress on the joint and low grade inflammatory processes.[4] It develops as cartilage is lost and the underlying bone becomes affected.[2] As pain may make it difficult to exercise, muscle loss may occur.[3][5] Diagnosis is typically based on signs and symptoms, with medical imaging and other tests occasionally used to either support or rule out other problems. In contrast to rheumatoid arthritis, which is primarily an inflammatory condition, in osteoarthritis, the joints do not typically become hot or red.[2]
Treatment includes exercise, efforts to decrease joint stress, support groups, and pain medications.[2][6] Efforts to decrease joint stress include resting and the use of a cane. Weight loss may help in those who are overweight. Pain medications may include paracetamol (acetaminophen) as well as NSAIDs such as napr